Style guides

APA in-text citations

Write the author’s last name. And the year of publication. Do not include the month of publication.

One author and no direct quote: You can write the author's last name inside or outside the parenthesis depending on what works best for you and your text.

Patel (2012) has shown that, in this context, the ideas and suggestions from the people involved are important.

or:

In this context, the ideas and suggestions from the people involved are important (Patel, 2012).


One author and a direct quote: Same as above and you add the page number(s) preceded by “p.” in parentheses after the quotation.

Patel (2012) has shown the "need for human input" (p. 12).

or:

There is a "need for human input" (Patel, 2012, p. 12).

In the second example, the author is not put in the signal phrase. Rather, the author’s name, the year, and the page number is put in parentheses after the direct quote.

APA list of references

At the end of your manuscript, put the sources in alphabetical order based on the authors’ last names under the heading References. Use the title if you do not have an author name. For each entry, write the date of publication followed by the rest of the bibliographic information. See the examples below.

Follow the APA sentence case rule for proper capitalization of titles in your in reference list: This rule stipulates that you must capitalize:
- the first word in the title
- the first word in any subtitle
- the first word after any colon if the text that follows the colon can stand on its own (i.e. is independent of the main title before the colon)
- words that are proper nouns. A proper noun describes a specific thing, place, or person, for example: the Berlin Wall, New York, or Freud. Tip: a good dictionary will help you find out if a word is a proper noun or a common noun.

Use lowercase for everything else in the titles.

Following the APA sentence case rule described above, here is an example of a title of an article as it will appear in a reference list:

Quality and compensation: Overcoming Freudian trauma after the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Capitalize the words that are part of a title of a journal, magazine, or newspaper (and use italic): Below is an example of a title of a journal as it will appear in a reference list:

Journal of European Post-War Sociology.

One author: Write the author's last name and the initials for the first and middle names.

Patel, K. L. (2012). A full summer. New York, NY: Acumen International.

Two to seven authors Authors’ last names comes first and then only initials for all first and middle names.

Irmyian, R. T., & Wennergren, A. (2003). Dreaming waters. London: Daft Publishing.

Note the comma before the ampersand (&).

Eight or more authors Follow the example below.

Smith, J. M., Chopra, E., Durga, M. B., Bauman, S. H., Skoplowska, K., Swenson, S. A., . . . Rossborg, D. J. (2011). Effective models for teaching. The Educational International Journal, 34, 34-42.

In other words, for eight or more authors write the first six, then three dots, and then the last author.

Scientific joural article

Kohler, J. J. (2007). Quality and compensation: Overcoming Freudian trauma after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Journal of European Post-War Sociology, 32(2), 163-172.

Note that the volume number should be written in italic but the issue number within parentheses should not. If you have a so called DOI number, you may add it at the end, but do not put a period after it.


MLA in-text citations

MLA is used in the humanities and the arts.

Basic example, page number unknown The author's last name appears either within parentheses or in the running text.

The effects of training has been documented (Smith).

 or:

Smith has reported on the effects of training.

Basic example, page numbers are known Write the author's last name and the page number where you found the quote or the section that you want to refer to. Note that you may write the author's last name in running text or within parentheses.

Johnson showed that "the flow of ideas was immense" (47).

or:

On occasion, "the flow of ideas was immense" (Johnson 47).

or:

Johnson has described the intensity of the flux of thoughts in the creative process (47).

Note that you must write the page number(s) within parentheses (rather than in the running text).

MLA Works Cited

MLA is used in the humanities and the arts.

1. Basic example The basic entry in the Works Cited list for a book is:

Lastname, Firstname. The title of book. The city of publication: The name o the publisher, the year of publication. The medium (type) of publication.

For example:

Smith, John. The big book of training. London: International Publishing, 2011. Print.

Chicago/Turabian in-text citations

To state your source in the running text, put a superscript number in the text. Then put the reference in a footnote or an endnote, with the same number.

Example, one author (book): In the example below, the source is a book by an author whose last name is Deromond. To refer to it in the running text, first put the superscript number at the end of the sentence (after the period):

Deromond has discussed the dilemma of modern man.1

The first time this source (Deromond) is cited, the footnote/endnote looks like this:

1. Carl Deromond, Fighting the Seas of Trouble: A Study of Modern Man (London: Acumen Books, 2012), 127-128.

The next times this source is cited, the footnote/endnote looks like this (in this particular example below, we are refering to page 134):

2. Deromond, Fighting the Seas, 134.

The full reference, in the list of Works Cited at the end of the text, looks like this:

Deromond, Carl. Fighting the Seas of Trouble: A Study of Modern Man. London: Acumen Books, 2012.

 


Chicago/Turabian list of references

Describe your source in the list of Works Cited at the end of your text.


Example, one author (book): This is a basic examlpe of how you write the citation in the list of Works Cited at the end of your text:

Lastname, Firstname. The title of the book. The publisher's hometown: The name of the publisher, the year of publication.

For example:

Deromond, Carl. Fighting the Seas of Trouble: A Study of Modern Man. London: Acumen Books, 2012.

Cite a:

Follow Us:

facebook twitter You tube


How to Write Citations.com | Free Citation Generator

This Free Citation Generator, with its Style Guides and Community Forum, is run by Scholars for APA Style and MLA Style (Harvard referencing) as well as Chicago Notes Style and Turabian Style (Oxford referencing), for your Bibliography, List of Works Cited, and Reference List. Here's our story so far.